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The Austrian Football Bundesliga German: The Austrian Bundesliga, which began in the —75 season, has been a separate registered association since 1 December It has been most won by the two Viennese giants Austria Wien , who were national champions 21 times, and Rapid Wien , who won the national title 17 times.
The current champions are Red Bull Salzburg. Hans Rinner is president of the Austrian Bundesliga. The Austrian Football Bundesliga is currently known as tipico Bundesliga for sponsorship reasons.
Football has been played in Austria since around Around the turn of the twentieth century two attempts were made to start a national championship.
This cup was actually played in league format. The competition for this championship, the 1. From , the league was considered professional and changed its name to I.
Clubs from the professional league in Vienna were not part of this competition. Numerous teams were disbanded and some players fled out of the country.
Despised by Nazis as unworthy of a true German, professionalism in sports was outlawed in May Teams, like Hakoah Wien were banned and others, like Austria Wien were first closed and then renamed.
Finally, the operation of the junior teams was handed over to the local Hitlerjugend units. From , the league was renamed Gauliga Donau-Alpenland to further eradicate the memory of Austria as an independent country.
The league returned to a Vienna-only format in , briefly named 1. Klasse once more before changing to just Liga in Only upon the introduction of the all-Austrian Staatsliga A in did teams from the whole federal territory finally play for the Austrian Championship.
However, the road to organising the Staatsliga proved difficult. A conflict between the representatives of the amateur and the professional aspects of the sport led to the separation of the Viennese league from the football federation, and to the establishment of its own competition on 30 June At the statutory Presidential Election Council of the Austrian Football Association only a few days later a surprising turn took place — upon the request of Lower Austria, the introduction of the Staatsliga was finally and unanimously confirmed.
This league, however, was disbanded again in , whereby the Staatsliga A dropped the A from its name, the need for differentiating having been gone.
The Nationalliga remained as the second division, for now. In the —75 season the Bundesliga was introduced which, still led by the Austrian Football Association, aligned both of the highest divisions in Austria.
From to it played with sixteen clubs with each club playing the others twice. The top eight clubs then advanced to the championship round Officially: Oberes Play-off who again played each other twice.
The bottom four of the autumn round played the top four of the First League to determine the four teams to play in the Bundesliga in the following season.
This modus was used for the next eight seasons until when the league returned to the ten team format it originally operated in.
From the Season the League will expand from its current 10 teams to 12 teams. Since the Bundesliga has carried its own responsibility as a separate association, and organises the championships of the two highest divisions in Austria.
Both are named after their sponsors; since the Bundesliga is named after sports-betting company, Tipico. Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen upper leagues which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas.
The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country.
In the early s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany.
Every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations.
Bundesliga is financially strong, and the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, and reflecting an increasingly higher standard of professional play.
Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May , when the club was relegated for the first time.
In the —09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, which had been in use from until From until , a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2.
From until two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August  and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks mid-December through to the end of January. In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays five games beginning at 3: A new television deal in reintroduced a Friday game beginning at 8: Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in , part-time semi- professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen Premier Leagues remained.
Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship.
At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries.
The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots. The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia 0—1 in a World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus of many towards the formation of a national league.
East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August Dynamo Dresden and F.
Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers. The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga.
Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss.
Since the —96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss.
The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion. Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League , while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round see overview.
The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2. The 16th-placed team third-last , and the third-placed team in the 2.
Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match. The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2.
If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement.
However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga. In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives.
Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game. That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit.
By contrast, in the other major European leagues, numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires, and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
After the German Football Association and the Bundesliga mandated that all clubs run a youth academy , with the aim of bolstering the stream of local talent for the club and national team.
This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.
In the first decade of the third millennium s , the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title.
At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval.
In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 percent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg , Bayer Leverkusen and current Regionalliga Nordost member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams.
Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties. In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players.
Based on its per-game average, the Bundesliga is the best-attended association football league in the world; out of all sports, its average of 45, fans per game during the —12 season was the second highest of any professional sports league worldwide, behind only the National Football League of the United States.
Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans by comparison, stadia in the English Premier League are all-seaters due to the Taylor Report.
Match tickets often double as free rail passes which encourages supporters to travel and celebrate in a relaxed atmosphere. They are very fan orientated".
Football has got to be for everybody. The spectator figures for league for the last eleven seasons:. The Bundesliga broadcast rights are sold along with the broadcast rights to the Bundesliga Relegation Playoffs, 2.
Three Friday night matches — the openers of the first and second halves of the season, and on the final matchday before the winter break — are broadcast to all Germans on ZDF.
Radio coverage includes the national Konferenz whip-around coverage on the stations of ARD and full match coverage on local radio stations.
The Bundesliga is broadcast on TV in over countries. In October , 21st Century Fox , via the Fox Sports , Fox International Channels , and Sky plc divisions, acquired television and digital rights to the Bundesliga in 80 territories, including North America and Asia outside of India and Oceania for five years, and selected European territories for two years, beginning in the —16 season.
CEO James Murdoch explained that the deal was designed to "leverage our unrivaled global portfolio of sports channels to bolster the Bundesliga brand in every corner of the globe.
Spanish-language telecasts air on Fox Deportes. Matches stream online for subscribers to these channels on participating providers via Fox Sports Go , and are also available through the subscription service Fox Soccer Match Pass.
ITV4 broadcasts delayed highlights the following Monday. This arrangement lasts through the season. In , digital TV operator StarTimes acquired exclusive television rights for Sub-Saharan Africa for 5 years starting from season.
The following 12 clubs have won the Bundesliga: No club from former East Germany or Berlin has won the Bundesliga. The former East German side Dynamo Berlin laid claim to the three stars of a time champion.
They petitioned the league to have their DDR-Oberliga titles recognized, but received no reply. Dynamo eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars.
The issue also affects other former East German and pre-Bundesliga champions. BFC Dynamo Berlin have not followed this guideline and continue to wear three stars, rather than a single star inscribed with the number These stars are a permanent part of their crest.